Se siete qui sarete senz’altro alla ricerca di un riassunto in inglese sul Muro di Berlino facile e breve. Magari vi serve per preparare un’interrogazione o per una ricerca, oppure per una presentazione in Power Point: i motivi potrebbero essere tanti ma in ogni caso questa sintesi vi tornerà utile per studiare il simbolo più significativo della Guerra Fredda, il noto sistema di fortificazioni che la Germania dell’Est iniziò a costruire a Berlino nel 1961 con l’appoggio dell’Unione Sovietica.
Trattandosi di un riassunto ci siamo limitati ai fatti essenziali ma ciò non vuol dire che il contenuto sia superficiale: troverete quanto vi serve per studiare bene l’argomento, ripeterlo velocemente e presentarlo al meglio. Qualora vogliate capirne di più però vi consigliamo di leggere il nostro approfondimento sul Muro di Berlino in italiano e la nostra sintesi sulla Guerra Fredda. Per il resto trovate tutto qui di seguito. Good luck!
The division of Germany and Berlin after the Potsdam Conference and the Berlin Blockade
The Berlin Wall was a system of fortifications that separated West from East Berlin during the years of the Cold War. After the Potsdam Conference in 1945, Germany was divided into four zones: three under the control of the USA, France, and Great Britain, and one under the control of the USSR (the Soviet Union). The crisis of 1948-1949 led to the Berlin Blockade and to the split of the German into only two areas: the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The first belonged to the Western and capitalist bloc, the second to the Eastern and communist one. Even Berlin was divided into two parts, despite being located in East Germany.
The Wall was constructed in this atmosphere of growing tensions. Actually, in the 1960s the new President of the USSR, the successor of Iosif Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev, and the President of the USA, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, embraced the idea of a “peaceful coexistence”, but the Cold War persisted and the Berlin Wall was built in 1961.
The construction of the Berlin Wall
Between 1945 and the 1960s, millions of East Germans moved to West Germany, which offered better living conditions. This drained East Germany of professionals and workforce, indirectly affecting also the Soviet Union. The USSR helped East Germany to create this impassable border between East and West Berlin. Initially, it was built with barbed wire, but, over the years, it transformed into a wall stretching over 150 km and standing about four meters tall. The Wall became the most important symbol of the Iron Curtain, to the point that in East Germany the President Kennedy delivered the famous speech “Ich bin ein Berliner”, highlighting the tyranny of the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Mikhail Gorbachev, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the URSS
In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became the President of the USSR and initiated a series of democratic changes within the Union. His strategy led to the “autumn of nations” in 1989: the Eastern European countries demanded and achieved independence from the Soviet Union. In the same year, Hungary removed barriers on its border with Austria, allowing Germans to reunite. Shortly after, on November 9th, the East German government permitted its citizens to visit West Germany and West Berlin. They began to demolish the Wall soon. Just two years later, the USSR dissolved, and the Cold War ended.